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ai Chung so 58 - phat hanh ngay 15/9/2000

Duramax

AT MA TO S THIEN

Vu c, N.D.

"at Ma To S Thien" hay la Thien Tong Trung Hoa la mon thien do To s Bo e at Ma khai sang va chuyen hoa t Thien Tong An o. Thien Tong An o hay con goi la Thien Tam Muoi, cach truyen day da vao kinh sach Phat. Phat To Thch Ca la v au tien thc hien va ch day phep Thien Tam Muoi, cung nh nhng phap mon cua cac tong phai Phat giao khac. Giai thoai "Niem Hoa Vi Tieu" trong lch s thien hoc co giai thch:

"Trong luc thuyet phap cho cac e t, Phat To a cao len mot canh hoa sen (Niem hoa). Hau het moi ngi eu ng ngac, khong hieu viec g. Ngai Ca Diep la ngi duy nhat cam nhan c tham y cua Phat To luc bay gi. Lap tc ap lai vi Phat To bang mot nu ci thong cam (vi tieu)"

Thien Tong An o c c Phat To tam truyen cho ngai Ca Diep t o, va ngai Ca Diep c nhan truyen y bat, ke tha nhiem vu To s i th hai. Dan dan, cac ke to c truyen tha y bat en v to s th hai mi tam Bo e at Ma, cung la v to s sau cung cua Thien Tong An o.

NGUYEN NHAN PHAT SINH

Bo e at Ma la v to s Thien Tong An o i th hai mi tam luc bay gi xa hoi An o ang b anh hng lau i cua Ba La Mon Giao, va tn nging cua dan An, hau het thien nhieu ve sieu hnh, than b hoc. Cho nen An o luc bay gi, rat thch hp cho Phat giao Duy Tong Thc, Chan Nh Tong, Hoa Nghiem Tong va Khong luan Tong. Trai lai, con ng trc ch quy nguyen cua Thien Tong rat kho khan phat trien tai que nha. Do do, Thien Tong can phai tm en mot moi trng thch nghi nh Trung Hoa. ung theo li di huan cua To th hai mi bay, ngai Bat Nha a La (Prajanatra) truyen lai cho To s Bo e at Ma nh sau: "Sau mi nam sau ngay ta vien tch, e t nen du hanh sang ong o Trung Hoa truyen ao, v moi trng hng ong rat thch hp vi Thien Tong.

Theo cac hoc gia ong Tay, Trung Hoa va cac nc thuoc mien ong Chau A la at dung vo, rat thch hp phat trien Thien Tong, v phan ln ngi dan ban x tng tham nhuan, va ap dung tinh than hoa hp cac t tng Lao Trang trong cuoc song hang ngay. ay la yeu to thuan li giup cho tam hon con ngi de tr nen iem am, hao sang, chan thanh, bnh than, quan bnh, man tiep, hai hoa, an nhien t tai, ... Nhng c tnh can ban nay rat can thiet, la nhng vien gach cot tuy e xay dng nen mong vng chac cho Thien Tong.

Vao nam 520, i vua Lng Vo e, nhng ngay au tien mi en Trung Hoa, To s Bo e at Ma nhan thay hau het nhng ngi hoc Phat ch hieu theo danh so, hanh theo s tng "D danh so vi giai, s tng vi hanh" (Theo Thien S Khue Phong, tac gia sach Truyen Nguyen Ch Thuyen tap). Cung nh cac tong phai Phat giao tai ay eu co khuynh hng ve tranh luan sieu hnh, phap quan vo thng, phung tr gii hanh, ... Tat ca khuynh hng nay eu la lp vo ben ngoai, nhng phng tien e dien ta chan ly, giong nh ngon tay ch trang cua Phat.

Do do, vi t tng cach mang, chat bo ngon tay ch trang, To s Bo e at Ma chu xng mot ng loi tu hanh mi, at lai van e "giac ngo" cho ngi Trung Hoa.

TON CH VA YEU LY

Vi chu trng bat chap phng tien, kinh sach e i thang vao tam hon con ngi, To s Bo e at Ma a sang che ra bon ton ch thien nh sau:

Giao Ngoai Biet Truyen,

Bat Lap Van T

Trc Ch Nh Tam

Kien Tanh Thanh Phat

Dch ngha tam la:

Truyen Rieng Ngoai Giao

Chang Lap Van T

Ch Thang Tam Ngi

Thay Tanh Thanh Phat

Yeu ly cua thien lag? Theo ngai chu trng:

"Thien la con ng i thang vao tam hon con ngi e at chan ly, ch thang vao ban chat the tanh cua con ngi e giai thoat.

Thien khong the nghien cu ve mat ly luan ma phai la nhng kinh nghiem song thc, t o, e phat sinh ra nhng trc giac i thang vao i song tam linh cua con ngi. Do o, Thien cung co the hieu la mot ao song cua con ngi. Moi phng dien cua cuoc song eu nam trong ao Song. Th du nh: - Tinh than va thai o c x hp nhan ban trong cuoc song cua chung ta oi vi con ngi va vat xung quanh la ao (Nhan ao hay ao lam ngi) Viet van, oc sach, lam th, ca ngam, chi nhac, ve tranh, ... e nang cao tam hon van hoa nghe tuat, va giao duc i song con ngi la ao (Van ao nh ngi xa co cau: Van d tai ao) Luyen tap vo thuat, the duc va chi the thao la ao (Vo ao). Nghe thuat uong tra co Tra ao. Thng thc canh vat thien nhien, lam vn, cam hoa, trang tr sach se nha , nau thc an, va cach dung y phuc... tat ca thch hp vi hti tiet va sc khoe ca nhan, eu la ao (ao dng sinh) Tap trung tinh than va thng thc niem vui thu trong cac cong viec lam hang ngay, tai nha hoac ni lam viec cung la ao. Sau cung, yen lang cung la ao.

Danh t Thien la mot tieng gian d, nhng y ngha cao ca cua no lai vt len tren tat ca hieu biet ngoai tam, sac tng cua con ngi.

Chan ly thien khong phai la oi tng co the mang ra e thao luan suong, xuyen qua s thong hieu cua hang tram kinh sach. Mot ngi dot nat khong hieu biet ch ngha cung co the at c chan ly thien. Neu tam cua ngi o t nhan biet c ban tnh thc chat cua mnh."

Hien nay nhng s sach ghi chep lai nhng li thuyet giang cua To s Bo e at Ma gom co: Thieu That Luc Mon, cac bai thuyet phap, cac bai ke phu phap,...

"Thieu That Luc Mon" con goi la "Sau Ca Vao ong Thieu That" la sach ghi chep lai sau mon i vao ao phap at Ma To s Thien Tong nh:

Tam Kinh Tung (Bo Kinh Bat Nha Ba-La-Mat)

Pha Tng Luan (Luan Ve Phap Pha Tng)

Nh Chung Nhap (Hai Neo ng i Vao ao Phap)

An Tam Phap Mon (Phep An Tam)

Ngo Tanh Luan (Phep Thay Tanh Thanh Phat)

at Ma Huyet Mach Luan (Phep Luan Chnh Yeu Cua ao Phat)

Sau ay la bai ke phu phap cua at Ma oc trong luc truyen y bat cho ngai Nh To Hue Kha (tc Than Quang)

"- Ngon Ban Lai T Tho - Tho Phap, Cu Me Tnh

- Nhat Hoa Khai Ngu Diep - Ket Quat Nhien Thanh"

dch ngha tam la:

"- Ta Von Qua Trung Tho - Trao Phap, Cu Me Tnh

- Mot Hoa Nam Canh Tro - Trai Ket T Nhien Thanh"

Theo sach "Truyen ang luc" (do ao Nguyen soan 1101, au i Tong), bai thuyet giang au tien cho trieu nh Lng Vo e chnh la phan c ban cua at Ma Huyet Mach Luan. Ngai a at lai cac quan iem: An tam, Kien tanh, Phap than, Pha tng, va cac nguyen ly Thien ao. Ngai rat that vong v trieu nh Lng Vo e, ai dien cho mot lp ngi tam thng ve mat t tng: ne co, thanh kien bi nhng phong tuc tap quan, bao thu vi nhng phc c cau danh nho hep, khong u can c lnh hoi nhng t tng mi la, cao tham cua ngai nh sau:

"Ca the gii c ngh trong Tam. Tat ca cac ch Phat t qua kh hien tai en tng lai, eu c tao thanh ngay trong Tam. S hieu biet cung c truyen ba t Tam sang Tam nh vao li noi. Tam cua moi ngi eu ong ieu, tng ng trong thc tai muon i, vi thc te muon i. Tam la Phat. Ngoai tam khong co Phat. S giac ngo nao ngoai Tam linh ong, ngoai thc tai cua Tam. Tat ca eu la huyen tng. Duy ch co t tng cua Tam va s an ngh cua Tam mi chnh la Niet Ban thc s.

Cho nen, mnh phai t lang nghe va t nhn that Phat tanh ngay trong chnh mnh. Moi ngi la mot v Phat trong chnh mnh. Do o, mnh chang cu ai ca, cung nh khong co ai co the cu c mnh. Mnh khong phai van xin, nguyen cau bat c ai, v khong co v Phat nao hieu mnh hn chnh mnh t hieu. V vay, mnh khong phai hoc hoi nhng s hieu biet trong cac kinh sach cua bat c ai...

Than xac la phu du, trong cuoc i troi nhanh vi thi gian ngan ngui nay. Vay ta t giai thoat, bang cach t kham pha lai hnh bong cua mnh...

Tam i! Hi Tam! Mi ln en noi bao trum ca vu tru, mi nho en noi mui kim khong xuyen qua lot. Hi Tam cua ta i! Mi la Phat, va chnh v mi ma ta phai lao ao qua Trung quoc e giang truyen ao ly..."

S KE THA BO E AT MA

at Ma To s Thien hay la Thien Tong Trung Hoa c chuyen hoa t Thien Tong An o, do ngai Bo e at Ma khai sang, trong chn nam "Dien Bch Tham Thien" tai chua Thieu Lam T (nui Tung Sn). Sau o, ung theo li tien tri cua To s Bo e at Ma, trong bai ke phu phap truyen lai cho Nh To Hue Kha la "- Nhat Hoa Khai Ngu Diep, Ket qua t nhien thanh". Thien Tong Trung Hoa a c ke tha bi nam v to nh sau:

Nh To Hue Kha (486-593)

Tam To Tang Xan (606)

T To ao Tn (580-651)

Ngu To Hoang Nhan (601-674)

Luc to Hue Nang (638-713)

Trong khoang hai tram nam, sau v to s a gia cong hng thnh Thien Tong Trung hoa. T o, Thien Tong c banh trng sau rong vao cac nc thuoc mien ong Chau A, ien hnh nh cac nc Nhat, ai Han, Viet Nam, ai Loan, HongKong, ...

Trong thi ky s khi nay cach truyen day Thien qua nhng li truyen khau (khong co ch viet), nhng li day gian d, de hieu va thc tien. Viec tu tap chu yeu van theo loi An o. o la ky thuat "Quan Tam trong Tnh Lang" hay noi theo danh t nha Thien la Mac Chieu.

Vao khoang au the ky th tam, Luc to Hue Nang co mot so e t xuat sac torng o co hai ngi la Hoai Nhng (? 788) va Hanh T (? 775) co anh hng rat manh me. Moi v lai co mot e t xuat sac la Ma To (? 788) va Thach au (700-790), hai v nay lai co mot so e t phi thng, trc tiep hoac gian tiep a sang lap ra nam phai Thien chnh, vao thi o nh: Phai Lam Te, phai Tao ong, phai Qui Ngng, phai Van Mon va phai Phap Nhan. Theo thi gian ba phai Qui Ngng, Van Mon va Phap Nhan khong con ton tai, eu b ong hoa vao hai phai Lam Te hoac Tao ong. Do o, hai phai Thien oc nhat la Lam Te va Tao ong van con ton tai en ngay nay. Trai qua nhieu the he, hai phai nay thng hay oi ch vi nhau. Tao ong van gi viec tu tap "Mac Chieu" theo truyen thong An o, con Lam Te theo kieu Trung HOa va Nhat la tham khao Cong An (Thoai au), cach tap nay rat la rac roi, kho hieu.

Gs. Vu c, N.D.

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